KPTree Torrent VM Setup

Deluge Headless setup

The main reference used is Havetheknowhow.com, specifically for the deluge headless setup, Havetheknowhow.com - How to install Deluge Headless. The Deluge support page is also a root source of knowledge Deluge systemd. Whatbox Deluge also has some interesting dialog.

If installing on a virtual machine (VM) it is important to also have set up the NFS to allow access to the main storage. Also, consider aligning the appropriate file system user and groups between the VM server and VM guests. (Check the local deluge directory actually exists for the user as otherwise the deluge and deluge web daemons will crash and not load. (For the Ubuntu Network Filing System, NFS, see Havetheknowhow.com - How to configure NFS Version 4, that contains configuration information for both the VM server and clients.

Unfortunately, Havetheknowhow.com does not seem to cover the alignment of user and groups between the main OS and VMs. I create a basic template machine and manual update the group and user id numbers to align, a use the basic information given in Linux: Changing UIDs and GIDs for a user. The process is tedious and takes a bit of care to complete, but once setup properly allows better operation between the server and virtual machines.

I use a dedicated VM guest for Deluge with a VPN set up on this VM. I have been using the VPN BTGuard for a few years now without any significant problems, save for BTGuard changing the IP address of their servers on occasion without informing end users, this affects the firewall software as noted below.

OpenVPN setup with BTGuard

The following setup for the VPN with BTGuard. (The BTGuard Setup does not align well with the headless server and Deluge setup.)

  • To install openvpn "sudo apt install network-manager-openvpn"
  • Download BTGuard certificate (CA) "wget -O /etc/openvpn/btguard.ca.crt http://btguard.com/btguard.ca.crt"
  • Download BTGuard OpenVPN configuration "wget -O /etc/openvpn/btguard.conf http://btguard.com/btguard.conf"
  • Modify the /etc/openvpn/btguard.conf file as follows:
    • To optionally allow additional logging add the line: "status openvpn-status.log" (I added in before the "verb 3" line)
    • To allow automatic login change the line: "auth-user-pass" to "auth-user-pass /etc/openvpn/login.conf"

Create the /etc/openvpn/login.conf file and add only the BTGuard User name on the first line and associated password on the second line. Consideration should be given to protecting this information by limiting access to this file, e.g. changing file to root access only. (As these files a configuration files only they are not to be made executable.)

The BTguard VPN protection can be started with the command "sudo openvpn /etc/openvpn/btguard.conf", however it should have been automatically setup during installation using a systemd boot script.

BTGuard seems to change their VPN IP addresses from time to time! The iptables configuration needs to be changed to match to ensure operation. BTGuard seems to show there current IP addresses at their Knowledgebase How can I test if BTGuard VPN is working?. Sadly BTGuard do not seem to pro-actively inform their users of these changes, perhaps they do not want to keep a mailing list to protect client security.

Sample /etc/openvpn/btguard.conf:

client

dev tun

proto udp

remote vpn.btguard.com 1194

resolv-retry infinite

nobind

persist-key

persist-tun

ca /etc/openvpn/btguard.ca.crt

status openvpn-status.log

verb 3

mute 3

auth-user-pass /etc/openvpn/login.conf

mute-replay-warnings

float

reneg-sec 0

Sample /etc/openvpn/login.conf:

Username

Password

Obviously, Username and password are end user specific.

IPTables Configuration

A problem with this protection is should the OpenVPN system fail then the VPN protection will fail. To diminish this risk, I have set up the Deluge VM with an IPtables based firewall to effectively stop external internet connection upon any failure of the VPN. (The reference for the iptables filter script was AirVPN - Prevent leaks with Linux & iptables )

Sample IPTables configuration script, BTGuard_iptable.sh:

# Flush

iptables -F

iptables -t nat -F

iptables -t mangle -F


# Flush V6

ip6tables -F

ip6tables -t nat -F

ip6tables -t mangle -F


# Local

iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT

iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT


# Local V6

ip6tables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT

ip6tables -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT


# Make sure you can communicate with any DHCP server

iptables -A OUTPUT -d 255.255.255.255 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A INPUT -s 255.255.255.255 -j ACCEPT


# Make sure that you can communicate within your own network if Private Network option is enabled

iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.0.0/16 -d 192.168.0.0/16 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A OUTPUT -s 192.168.0.0/16 -d 192.168.0.0/16 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A INPUT -s 10.0.0.0/8 -d 10.0.0.0/8 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A OUTPUT -s 10.0.0.0/8 -d 10.0.0.0/8 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A INPUT -s 172.16.0.0/12 -d 172.16.0.0/12 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A OUTPUT -s 172.16.0.0/12 -d 172.16.0.0/12 -j ACCEPT


# Allow incoming pings if Ping option is enabled

iptables -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT


# Allow established sessions to receive traffic:

iptables -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT


# Allow TUN

iptables -A INPUT -i tun0 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A FORWARD -i tun0 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A OUTPUT -o tun0 -j ACCEPT


# make sure that eth and tun can communicate

iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o tun0 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A FORWARD -i tun0 -o eth0 -j ACCEPT


# specifically allow IP addresses of VPN only for outgoing packet on eth0

iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -d 63.142.161.0/24 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -d 95.211.0.0/16 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -d 85.17.28.0/24 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -d 203.174.86.88 -j ACCEPT

#iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -d 209.58.183.206 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -d 109.201.137.0/24 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -d 104.254.90.0/24 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A OUTPUT -o eth0 -d 104.254.92.0/24 -j ACCEPT

# IP address and subnet masks from BTGuard

# 209.58.183.206 seems to be the BTGuard Singapore address since circa Oct 2016 & removed May 2017

# 104.254.90.0/24 seems to be the BTGuard Singapore? address since circa May 2017

# 104.254.92.0/24 seems to be the BTGuard Singapore? address since circa May 2017


# Block All else, so that nothing leaks if VPN disconnects

iptables -A OUTPUT -j DROP

iptables -A INPUT -j DROP

iptables -A FORWARD -j DROP


# Block All V6

ip6tables -A OUTPUT -j DROP

ip6tables -A INPUT -j DROP

ip6tables -A FORWARD -j DROP

Some other handy pointers and commands related to the iptables setup:

  • Remember if creating the script from scratch to make executable use: "sudo chmod a+x BTGuard_iptable.sh"
  • Use the "route", "ifconfig", ip a and "ip route" commands to help check configuration of your network. (As noted below, particularly check the eth0 / tun0 references match.)
  • The network configuration file can be found at "/etc/network/interfaces"
  • If iptables is not installed run "sudo apt install iptables"
  • Ensure the network reference such as "eth0" is consistent, particularly with Ubuntu 16.04 VM which seems to rename this reference, see Changing Network Interfaces name Ubuntu 16.04 for further information on this matter.
  • The outgoing packet IP addresses, including subnet masks, must match those specified by BTGuard.
  • To get the external IP address use: "wget http://ipinfo.io/ip -qO -"
  • To see the current openvpn status use: "sudo systemctl status openvpn@btguard.service" or

How to make IPTables configuration permanent / restore on boot

Reference How to save rules of the iptables? and Ubuntu Netfilter manual

  • Install iptables persistent "sudo apt install iptables-persistent"
  • To save current IPTable configuration use: "sudo netfilter-persistent save" or "journalctl -u openvpn@btguard.service -f", where options are; -u is followed by the service and the -f give continuous output, use cont-c to breakout.

Kodi Setup

I have been using WD Media players around the house the past 8 years or so. Originally with individual 2.5"HD and then connecting to my home server. These units are very simple to use and setup and have played media files well. Circa 2016 I notice that some media files will not play anymore. Upon investigating the WD (Western Digital) web site I notice that these units look to be no longer sold and support is limited, perhaps already end of life. Earlier investigation of these unit indicate the internal hardware is quite limited, particularly by current standards, but as already stated good enough as a general media player.

I notice a few years ago the the web site Have the know how recommended the Kodi Overview, in fact even states, "Kodi: The holy grail of media streamer front-ends". I will not go over the benefits and history of Kodi, just look at the Kodi home page and Have the Know How web pages.

Kodi can be loaded on to many different types of hardware and operating systems, it even has a Linux based OS design for it, OpenELEC. Specifically it does run on MS Windows and most flavours of Linux.

Kodi Server MariaDB (MySQL) Setup

I have been using MariaDB instead of MySQL, as MariaDB is true opensource software and MySQL belongs to a large corporation. MariaDB has a few "quircks" to setup comparied to MySQL which is more commonly described.

Make sure that MySQL is NOT installed, if so uninstall it.

MariaDB can be installed by "sudo apt install mariadb-server". The latest version can be downloaded from instructions from MariaDB Foundation Downloads Setting up MariaDB Repositories.

To setup secure root access:

  • sudo mysql -u root
  • use mysql;
  • update user set plugin='' where User='root';
  • flush privileges;
  • \q
  • mysql_secure_installation
  • Add password, and then Y for all other questions

Check status of mariadb "sudo systemctl status mysql"

Next move MySQL Data Directory

Check current location of MySQL data directory: "mysql -u root -p" and then at mysql> "select @@datadir;". It should be "/var/lib/mysql". Exit mysql prompt with "\q".

Stop MySQL : "sudo systemctl stop mysql"

My the mysql data directory to your preferred location: "sudo mv /var/lib/mysql /mnt/shared/kodi"

Next create a symlink pointing to the new location: "sudo ln -s /mnt/shared/kodi/mysql /var/lib/mysql". Another option instead of using a symlink is to adjust the mysql.cnf file datadir parameter, i.e. change "datadir=/var/lib/mysql" to "datadir=/mnt/shared/kodi/mysql". Again most the documentation on mysql.cnf is for mysql not mariadb, which has its own quirks. See the notes on adjusting bind-address below to clarify.

The current version of mariadb does not use apparmor, so no need to adjust for this!

The mysql network access needs to be configured to all full LAN access, default access is localhost only. The mysql.cnf configuration file needs to be updated. Mariadb handles this differently than MySQL. The main configuration file "/etc/mysql/mariadb.cnf" points to other directories with configuration files. Checking these directories shows the mariadb server parameters are located in "/etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/50-server.cnf", to edit: "sudo vim /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/50-server.cnf". Find the parameter "bind-address = 127.0.0.1" and change to the server IP address "bind-address = 192.168.1.19".

Restart mysql: "sudo systemctl restart mysql", check all is running well: "sudo systemctl status mysql", and then check listening address on mysql port: "sudo lsof -i -P | grep :3306"

Next setup the mysql kodi database access:

  • mysql -u root -p
  • create user 'kodi' identified by 'kodi';
  • grant all on *.* to 'kodi';
  • show grants for 'kodi';
  • \q

Kodi Headless Server Setup

Work in Progress. I have not been able to get this working yet. I get the webui operational with the default kodi-headless settings. When I adjust the advanced kodi setting the webui is not available. I am also concern that this setup will not update the media library as there is no drive link in the design.

The following command is used to set up Docker Kodi Headless Media Center, from LinuxServer.IO docker-kodi-headless:

docker create --name=kodi-headless \
-v <path to data>:/config/.kodi \
-e PGID=<gid> -e PUID=<uid> \
-e TZ=<timezone> \
-p 8080:8080 -p 9777:9777/udp \
linuxserver/kodi-headless

--name=kodi-headless \

The container is assigned the name kodi-headless. This has the benefit over the default random assigned name to provide a consistent container name, also helping preventing multiple kodi-headless containers from being started, as running container names must be unique. Docker reference: Container identification Name (-name)

-v <path to data>:/config/.kodi \

<path to data> is the path on the local machine drive volume where the kodi configuration files are loaded. It is mapped to /config/.kodi with in the container. These files are persistent outside of the Kodi Docker container. Docker documentation link: Use volumes

-e PGID=<gid> -e PUID=<uid> \

These are environment variables to be set as specifically explained in docker-kodi-headless . Some addition information maybe garnered from Linuxserver.io - Kodi-Headless Support threads.

-e TZ=<timezone> \

An other environment variable to be set, my area is Australia/Perth

-p 8080:8080 -p 9777:9777/udp \

-p IP:host_port:container_port. The Kodi ports are described below, with source references. Unless the host machine is already using these ports there is no need to remap them. I found the IP in IP:host was necessary to enforce IPv4 mapping, without mapping sometimes was IPv6 (strange)

Kodi headless webui port is on port 8080, see Kodi documentation Web interface and Webserver

Kodi has an EventServer mapped to port 9777/udp, see Kodi documentation EventServer

My Setup:

docker create --name=kodi-headless \
-v /mnt/shared/kodi/config:/config/.kodi \
-e PGID=1001 -e PUID=1000 \
-e TZ=Australia/Perth \
-p 192.168.1.19:8080:8080 -p 192.168.1.19:9777:9777/udp \
linuxserver/kodi-headless

The docker create command creates the container, but does not start it. To create and start use the docker run command.

To check running docker containers "docker ps", to check all docker containers, running and stopped "docker ps -a".

To start a container "docker <name>", or "docker kodi-headless", to stop a container "docker stop <name>", where the <name> is the relevant container listed in "docker ps -a"

After starting access to the web interface should be possible from the LAN, at the host IP address and host assigned port, e.g. "192.168.1.19:8080".

Shell access whilst the container is running: "docker exec -it kodi-headless /bin/bash", type "exit" to exit.

It would seem that starting the container populates the "/config/.kodi" directory. These files are stored permanently outside the emphemeral container and can be edited from the permanent stored location <path to data>, in my case "/mnt/shared/kodi/config"

Docker Setup - Preliminary

Docker seems to be a reasonably recent variation based upon quite old concepts with modern aspects thrown in. The documentation seems a bit sparse. I found it difficult to find a good balanced reference. A good reference is of course the Docker Website itself: Get Started, Part 1: Orientation and setup. A good reference (pdf) was from Anthony Blair of Universit'e de Rennes, Docker Tutorial. Many of the Docker tutorials seem to focus on features that I am not interest at this time, such as Docker swarms and not enough on basic usage.

Some handy docker commands and related:

  • "docker exec -it <name> /bin/bash" to get terminal inside container <name>
  • "sudo netstat -nlp"
  • "docker rm <name>", to remove docker <name> container, container must be stopped "docker stop <name>"
  • "docker ps", to list running docker containers, "docker ps -a" to list all docker containers, runnging and stopped
  • "docker logs <name>", to see docker <name> log file, and "docker logs -f <name>", to see docker <name> log file online output
  • "docker port <name>" to see docker <name> port mappings to host

Start container at boot:

It is assumed that the container has been previously created/run and is available to be started at boot.

"sudo vim /etc/systemd/system/docker-kodi-headless.service"

[Unit]
Description=kodi-headless container
Requires=docker.service
After=docker.service

[Service]
Restart=always
ExecStart=/usr/bin/docker start -a kodi-headless
ExecStop=/usr/bin/docker stop -t 2 kodi-headless

[Install]
WantedBy=default.target

The following is a list of related commonly used commands and scripts:

  • Get external IP address "wget http://ipinfo.io/ip -qO -"
  • Save the current netfilter (IPTables) configuration "sudo netfilter-persistent save"
  • To check the current network hardware configuration "ip a"
  • System command to start(/stop /status) the OpenVPN program "sudo systemctl start openvpn@btguard.service"
  • To run script with IPTABLES configuration (netfilter) "sudo /mnt/shared/scripts/BTGuard_iptable_ens3.sh"
  • To label list current IPTABLES configuration, verbose "sudo iptables -L -v" or simple "sudo iptables -S"
  • To edit BTGuard openVPN configuration file "sudo vim /etc/openvpn/btguard.conf"
  • To flush the current IPtables configuration "sudo iptables -F"
  • To check log on OpenVPN with BTGuard (/VPN /open) "grep btguard /var/log/syslog"
  • To check running process with open for openvpn(/del, for deluge) "ps -A | grep open"
  • To start (/stop /enable) the deluge daemon "sudo systemctl start deluged"
  • To start (/stop /enable) the deluge web interface daemon "sudo systemctl start deluge-web"
  • Systemd common commands (start / stop / restart / status) (enable / disable for boot control)